Computer bus: The main functions of the Computer bus system it to store and process data as a computer bit or digital signal (0 and 1). These bits run inside the computer circuit. That means bus is a packet of cable through which digital signal can run. That means bus has been used for transferring data from one part to another part.
Bus width: The term bus width means how many bits can run into the bus in same time. For example: the term 16 bit bus means 16 bit can run into the computer in same time. The more the bus width, the more the bit can run simultaneously.
Bus speed: The speed of the bus can measure mega hertz. The greater the speed of the bus, the greater the data will transfer with speed. Usually speed of the bus may be 8 mega hertz to 400 mega hertz.
Classification of the bus: bus can be classified in two ways. These are:
1. System bus
2. Expansion bus
System bus can be classified in two ways. These are:
1. Data bus
2. Control bus
3. Address bus
System bus: Computer bus system creates connection with other parts of the central processing unit is called system bus. Usually Computer bus system means system bus.
· Data bus: the main function of data bus is to transfer data in various chips. For example: data transfers from RAM chip to processor chip and from processor chip to RAM chip. Based on the width of data bus microprocessor can be divided in two ways. These are:
v 8 bit width based microprocessor: This type of microprocessor processes data or information as a 8 bit or 1 byte.
v 16 bit width based microprocessor: This type of microprocessor processes data or information as 16 bit or 2 byte. For 16 bit microprocessor needs 16 bit operating system. For example: DOS, windows 3 operating system.
v 32 bit width based microprocessor: This type of microprocessor processes data as 32 bit or 4 byte. For 32 bit microprocessor needs 32 bit operating system. For example: windows 98, Windows NT, OS/2 unix operating system.
v 64 bit width based microprocessor: This type of microprocessor processes data as 64 bit or 8 byte. Windows vista has 32 bit version. Intel ITANIUM is a 64 bit microprocessor.
Address bus: With the help of address bus, CPU connects any special address of main memory. Through this bus memory address come and goes but data will not transfer.
Control bus: The main task of control bus is to transfer signal from microprocessor in related parts. Through control bus where central processing unit connects in that address there send direction for memory reading, memory writing, input reading or output writing.
Expansion bus: Through expansion bus, CPU communicates with computer’s input/output or other peripheral devices. Various types of expansion bus are:
v Local bus
v Universal serial bus
Local bus: The new bus that is attached for direct connection some outside board with central processing unit. Various types of local bus are:
VESA bus: Video electronic standard architecture bus transfers data with 32 bit CPU speed. The need for VESA bus is to graphics card.
PCI bus: Peripheral component interconnect bus is a 32 bit local bus. But now it is suitable for 64 bit or 168 bit.
Universal serial bus (USB): Since 1998 this bus has been used in Intel microprocessor based computers. On the basis of USB now keyboard, scanner, digital camera, hard disk and CD drive have been prepared.
FIREWARE: The high speed bus of modern era is FIREWARE. Through this 400 megabyte data is possible to transfer in every second.
AGP: Accelerated graphics port has been used for displaying high resolution graphics, video, and game etc.