Programming is made on the basis of some signals and some rules-regulations to provide order direction to the computer so that computer can understand. For preparing program such kind of rule-regulation and signal is called programming language.
There are 5 steps of computer programming language. These are:
- First generation language (1945): machine language
- Second generation language (1950): assembly language
- Third generation language (1960): high-level language
- Fourth generation language (1970): extreme high-level language
- Fifth generation language. (1980): usual language
First generation language: machine language
Machine language is the basic language of computer. In machine language all of the writings is accomplished by 0 and 1 binary or hex system. Computer is only understood machine language; instead of this if anyone uses other programming language then computer will interpret it through interpreter. The written program bases on machine language is called object program and written program based on other programming language is called source program.
Second generation language: assembly language
This language is consisting of various signals. So this language is known as symbolic language. In terms of symbolic language binary or hex number is not use for giving direction or information. Here information and direction will give through signal. This signal is called symbolic code.
Third generation language: high-level language
Word and language which help people to perceive are used in high-level language. When we express any issue through English language as well as through that kind of word or language in terms of high-level language follows same way.
The generation of programming language
EDSAC assembly language
Example: FORTRAN, ALGOL, LISP, COBOL, PL/1, LOGO, APL, PROLOG, FORTH, ADA, BASIC, PASCAL, C, C++, JAVA.
Fourth generation language: very high-level language
Some special languages which were invented so that user can easily apply in computer are called fourth generation language. Providing direction as like as English language computer user can connect with database and transfer information. In some case regarding high-level language using conversation system creates connection computer with user through question-answer. The fourth generation language is known as nonprocedural language because of there is no need of description about procedural. By using this language user can easily prepare application program so that it is called rapid application development tool. Mainly this programming language has been used for commercial application so that it is called application generator. For example: SQL, NOMAD, RPG III, FOCUS, INTELLECT etc.
Fifth generation language: natural language
As a fifth generation language program user is trying to use natural language. There are two types of natural language such as one is people language (English, bangle, Arabic, Persian etc) and other is programming language that use people language and create natural relationship with computer. Such kind of this language interprets with machine language that’s why the interpreter is called intelligent compiler. Mainly it is the sector of applying unstructured intelligence.