Pid controller tuning methods with fuzzy logic controller example

One relatively new concept being used in the pid controller tuning methods with fuzzy logic controller example. Classical logic has been based on either/or propositions for example, to evaluate the phrase ‘’the cat is fat, ‘’ classical logic requires a single cutoff point to determine when the cat is fat, such as a specific weight for a certain length.
It is either in the set of fat cats or it is not. However, ‘’fat’’ is a vague, or ‘’gray,’’ notion; its more likely that the cat is ‘’a little fat.’’ fuzzy logic is a method of dealing with imprecise data and vagueness, with problems that  have many answers rather than one. Unlike traditional “crisp” digital logic, fuzzy logic is more like human reasoning; it deals with probability and credibility. That is instead of being simply true or false a proposition is mostly true or mostly false, or  more  true or more false.
A frequently given example of an application of fuzzy logic is in running elevators. How long will most people wait for an elevator before getting antsy? About a minute and a half say researchers at the Otis Elevator company. The Otis artificial intelligence division has done considerable research into how elevators may be programmed to reduce waiting time. Ordinarily when someone on a floor in the middle of a building pushes the call button the system will send whichever elevator is closest. However that car might be filled with passengers, who will be delayed by the new stop (perhaps making them antsy). Another car, however, might be empty. In a fuzzy-logic system, the computer assesses not only which car is nearest but also how full the cars are before deciding which one to send.
Artificial intelligence has the potential to solve May problems; however, it may create some as well. For example, some people think that Al is dangerous because it does not address the ethics of using machines to make decision nor does it require machines to use ethics as part of the decision-making process. In spite of these concerns, all has been used to develop yet another system – the expert system to support decision making in many areas including the business environment.

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